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ESI Special Topic of:
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ESI Special Topics, June 2005
Citing URL - http://www.esi-topics.com/comets/interviews/
paper3.html


#3 Paper of the Top 20 Papers in Superfluids

Title: Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms
Authors: Greiner M, Mandel O, Esslinger T, Hansch TW, Bloch I
Source: NATURE 415 (6867): 39-44 JAN 3 2002
Document Type: Article Language: English
Cited References: 26  Times Cited: 546
Abstract: For a system at a temperature of absolute zero, all thermal fluctuations are frozen out, while quantum fluctuations prevail. These microscopic quantum fluctuations can induce a macroscopic phase transition in the ground state of a many-body system when the relative strength of two competing energy terms is varied across a critical value. Here we observe such a quantum phase transition in a Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive interactions, held in a three-dimensional optical lattice potential. As the potential depth of the lattice is increased, a transition is observed from a superfluid to a Mott insulator phase. In the superfluid phase, each atom is spread out over the entire lattice, with long-range phase coherence. But in the insulating phase, exact numbers of atoms are localized at individual lattice sites, with no phase coherence across the lattice; this phase is characterized by a gap in the excitation spectrum. We can induce reversible changes between the two ground states of the system.
Keywords Plus: JOSEPHSON-JUNCTION ARRAYS; COHERENCE; MODEL
Addresses: Addresses: Bloch I (reprint author), Univ Munich, Sekt Phys, Schellingstr 4-III, Munich, D-80799 Germany
Max Planck Inst Quantum Opt, Garching, D-85748 Germany
Univ Munich, Sekt Phys, Munich, D-80799 Germany
ETH Zurich, Quantenelektron, Zurich, CH-8093 Switzerland
Publisher: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, MACMILLAN BUILDING, 4 CRINAN ST, LONDON N1 9XW, ENGLAND Subject Category: MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES
IDS Number: 507KZ ISSN: 0028-0836
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ESI Special Topics, June 2005
Citing URL - http://www.esi-topics.com/comets/interviews/
paper3.html

ESI Special Topic of:
"Comets," Published February 2005

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